A comprehensive review of the effects of vaping on the lungs has confirmed that vaping is much less harmful than smoking. The findings are in line with the advice from the British Lung Foundation and reflect the real-world experience of millions of users. The review by an international team led by Professor Riccardo Polosa was published this week in the journal Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine. The findings are important because the respiratory tract (throat, airways and lungs) is the primary target of any potential harm from vaping. The findings are not surprising as the analysis of aerosol shows it has far fewer chemicals than cigarette smoke and those present are at much lower levels. The review found that many studies are poorly designed and results can be misleading. Importantly, many cell and animal studies do not compare the effects of vaping to those of smoking and present findings which are hard to interpret. This has resulted in many sensational and deceptive media headlines.