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Public Health England’s use of smoking as a benchmark for the relative safety of vaping (Public Health England maintains vaping is 95% safer than smoking, 28 December) will puzzle many given that smoking is not, by any reckoning, “safe”. The key research finding, described in their own report in terms of estimated relative harms, is that the harm to vapers is around 5% of the harm to smokers. The “95% safer” figure arises because 100-5 = 95. However, this formulation is not intuitive; [...]