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Researchers at Portland State University have developed methods for measuring levels of free-base nicotine in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) liquids and vapor, the levels of which are associated with harshness upon inhalation of e-cigarette vapors and tobacco smoke.
According to David Peyton, [...] in many e-cigarette liquids on the market nicotine is often predominately in its free-base form, which can provide a harsh and unpleasant vaping experience at high nicotine levels.