0
0
0
s2sdefault

Conducted at the San Francisco Hospital research ward, the current study analyzed the systemic nicotine exposure and subjective effects of e-cigarettes in dual users. The study recruited 36 healthy participants who used both cigarettes and e-cigarettes. The amount of nicotine in the participants’ plasma was measured, alongside their level of nicotine withdrawal, urge to smoke and vape, affective states, cravings, and satisfaction and psychological reward from vaping as compared to smoking.