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Two studies conducted by the Duke and Yale Universities in the US, claimed that flavours combine with solvents in e-cigarettes to produce new toxic chemicals that irritate the airways, leading to respiratory and cardiovascular problems. The findings were presented at the ‘virtual’ European Respiratory Society International Congress.

Sven-Eric Jordt, associate professor of anesthesiology, pharmacology, and cancer biology at Duke University School of Medicine in North Carolina, said that while e-cig manufacturers say that vapes are safe and chemically stable, the mixture of some components makes them toxic.