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Researchers at the University of California San Diego have conducted a study showing that both smoking and the use of e-cigarettes containing nicotine and flavorings may critically exacerbate inflammation in cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and significantly worsen clinical outcomes. “Our study has demonstrated that tobacco and flavored or nicotine-containing e-cig use could both lead to increased inflammatory response, but only tobacco upregulates ACE2,” write Weg Ongkeko (University of California) and colleagues.