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The observed 'gateway' effect of e-cigarette use among teens is "likely to be small," with only a tiny proportion of experimental vapers going on to smoke regular cigarettes, suggests research published online in the journal Tobacco Control.

If anything, young vapers are less likely to go on to smoke regular cigarettes than their peers who try out other tobacco products first, the findings indicate.

The potential 'gateway' impact of e-cigarettes on teen smoking uptake has been hotly contested. And several studies have linked teen vaping to a heightened risk of smoking.