This country is now home to an estimated 12 percent of the world’s billion cigarette smokers. Yet even this vast group is only the tip of the iceberg. India has a larger population who smoke local variants of tobacco. These include: bidis, cigarette-like rolls of unprocessed tobacco wrapped in a tendu or temburni leaf; hookah; chilam, a traditional clay pipe; and other forms. Many more people chew tobacco, in forms known as khaini, zarda and gutkha, which avoid some major consequences of smoking, like lung cancer, but still carry significant risks.