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The Australian Department of Health recently funded a review of vaping by Banks and colleagues that aimed to examine the ‘contemporary evidence on the health outcomes of nicotine and non-nicotine e-cigarette use’ and integrate this with ‘systematic reviews on smoking uptake and cessation’ to guide the formulation of evidence-based policy and practice. In our view, the review failed to achieve its aims because it did not compare the relative risk of the harms of vaping to conventional cigarettes; it did not consider the net public health impact of vaping; it ignored evidence that vaping is effective in smoking cessation; and it confused causation and correlation in interpreting the association between youth vaping and cigarette smoking.