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Because nicotine can produce neuroadaptations in the brain that make it hard to quit smoking, researchers have sought ways to treat nicotine dependence with non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques that counteract abnormal brain activity associated with chronic nicotine exposure.

This review, published by the scientific journal Addiction, looked at twelve randomised controlled trials of NIBS methods on a combined total of 710 participants with nicotine dependence. [...]